Infrastructure
Transportation
 

For economic, social and regional developmenr. more transport facilities are being provided and construction works such as building of new roads.rail tracks and bridges have been carried out. As a result, accessibility to various cities and town throughout the country has improved.

Roads

New roads and bridges have been constructed in the Ayeyarwady Division to lessen the dependency on waterways transportation.

Railways
          All major urban centres are connected by rail. The distances between some major connections by rail are as follows:

       Yangon to Myitkyina  	1,162  km (722 miles)
       Yangon to Mandalay     	   620  km (385 miles)
       Yangon to Lashio       	   901  km (560 miles)
       Yangon to Mawlamyine   	   287  km (178 miles)
       Yangon to Pyay         	   259  km (161 miles)

Airways

There are 59 domestic air fields in the country of which four are International Airports, namely Yangon, Mandalay, Bagan, Nyaung-Oo and Heho.

Domestic air transport is served exclusively by Myanma Airways, a public enterprise.

With regard to international air service," Myanma Airways International " has flights to neighbouring countries, such as Thailand, Hongkong, Singapore and Malaysia at present. In addition, it is due to start two more - Yangon-Dhaka and Yangon-Kunming-soon. Several international airlines such as Thai Airways International, Silk Air, China Airlines, Biman, Aeroflot and Nepal Airlines have air services via Yangon while others such as KLM, Air France and Northwest Orient Airlines have branch offices in Yangon.

For information regarding air rates and fares, enquiries can be made at the following addresses:

    Myanma Airways                         -   104, Strand Road.
    Myanma Airways International      -   123, Sule Pagoda Road.
    KLM                   		      -   104, Strand Road.
    Thai Airways International            -   441/445, Maha Bandoola St.
    Biman Airline                               -   106, Pansodan St.
    Air France                     	      -   69, Sule Pagoda Road.
    Aeroflot Airline               	      -   182 (B), Dhamma Zedi Road.
    China Airline                  	      -   104, Strand Road.
    North West Orient Airlines     	      -   36, Shwebontha St.
    Silk Air                       	      -   537, Merchant St.
    Nepal Airlines                 	      -   104, Strand Road.
    

Inland Waterways
Myanmar has a large inland water transport network.

                        Navigable Stretch

   Ayeyarwady River  1,550 km (963 miles)       From Yesagyo to
   Chindwin River      792 km (492 miles)       Hkamti

   Sittoung River    not navigable due to 
                     strong currents, but 
                     useful for rafting logs
   Thanlwin River      89 km  (55 miles)       From Mawlamyine to Shwegun
                                                  
   Kaladan River      177 km (110 miles)       From Sittway to Paletwa 
                                             
   Saing Tin River    129 km  (80 miles)       From Sittway to Buthidaung
                  

Shipping

The main international port in the country is Yangon which handles over 90 per cent of the sea-borne trade of the country. Although the mainstay of the cargo carried is break-bulk conventional cargo, container traffic is also catered for.

Myanma Five Star Line (M F S L) is the State-owned shipping line which operates coastal and overseas transport services with a fleet of twenty one vessels.

Coastal Service:

Rakhine Coastline
     Thandwe Port    360 nautical miles
     Kyaukpyu Port   465 nautical miles
     Sittway Port    530 nautical miles

Tanintharyi Coastline
     Mawlamyine Port 135 nautical miles
     Dawel Port      270 nautical miles
     Myeik Port      360 nautical miles
     Kawthaung Port  450 nautical miles
    

Overseas Services:

     Myanmar and U K / Continent             monthly         
 
     Myanmar and Far East                    monthly          
     (Hong Kong/Republic of Korea/Japan)                   

     Myanmar and Singapore                  average three 
                                     sailings per month       

Apart from the above liner services, it also operates services to east and west coasts of India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and People's Republic of China subject to availability of cargo. Moreover, M F S L also operates tramping service as and when it is necessary. Although its main cargo carried is break-bulk conventional cargo, container traffic is catered for in the Far East liner service between Yangon and Japan. South Korea where twenty feet containers and reefer containers are carried. A container service is also available in the Yangon - Singapore service.

Although there is no direct service to U S A and Canada, a transhipment agreement has been entered into with Nippon Yusen Kaisha Line ( N Y K) Japan, under which M F S L serves the Myanmar / Japan sector and N Y K serves the Japan / U S A and Canada sector. A similar transhipment arrangement has been made with Australian National Line (ANL), whereby ANL serves the Australia/Singapore sector and M F S L serves the Myanmar / Singapore sector. Apart from M F S L, there are also other foreign shipping lines entering Myanmar Ports, of which Nippon Yusen Kaisha Line, Eastern Car Liner Ltd.(Japan), Bangkok Container Line Co., Ltd.(Bangkok), Lian Huat Shipping and Foong Sun Shipping (Pte) Ltd. (Singapore) are the five regular shipping lines at present.

Communications

Communication services are rendered through 1168 post offices, 118547 telephones, 378 telegraph offices, 224 telex services and 520 facsimiles. Television programmes are being telecast to 190 townships through the microwave channel. Automatic telephones are installed in 53 towns and the other towns can be communicated through a network of exchanges. Myanmar has direct satellite links to eight countries such as Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, India. U K, Australia and Indonesia.

Most of the countries of the world can be connected via the above eight gateways. International Direct Dialling (I D D) system for overseas calls from Myanmar is available. In order to be compatible with the Myanmar Telecommunication Network, the following specifications are required for telecommunica- tion equipment to be imported.

Specifications

1 .Telex Machine 
  
     CCITT International Alphabet No. 2.
  
     Transmission Speed : Telex operation 50 bauds.

2.Facsimile Machine      
  
     Compatibility      : CCITT Group 2 or Group 3  
  
3.Transceiver System

   
   HF. SSB            : Maximum power output not more than 150 watts
  
   VHF Mobile         : Maximum power output not more than 40 watts
  
   VHF Handheld       : Maximum power output not more than 5 watts  
  
   

(Synthesizer controlled transceivers can be imported but must be used only with those frequencies assigned by the Posts and Telecommunications Department)

FUEL

Domestic production and distribution of petroleum and petroleum products is under- taken by the State-owned Enterprise. The main petroleum products available at the prices indicated against them below are.

                         Kyat Per Gallon     Kyat Per Litre
     Motor Spirit             16.00              3.52
     Superior Kerosene        13.50              2.97
     Diesel Oil               10.50              2.31
     Aviation Turbine Fuel    13.50              2.97
     Furnace Oil               8.50              1.87
     Methanol                  5.50              1.21
     Liquified Petroleum Gas   8.50              1.87
     Aviation Gas 80/87       22.00              4.85

        

ELECTRICITY

Myanma Electric Power Enterprise ( M E P E ), under the Ministry of Energy is responsible for the planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of electric supply facilities and sales of electricity throughout Myanmar. By the end of the year 1992/93 the total installed capacity of M E P E was 838 megawatts, of which 288 megawatts was hydroelectric, 357 megawatts was gas turbine and 193 megawatts was diesel and other thermal units.

The National Grid System covers the southern and central parts of Myanmar and electricity generation within the National Grid System is about 95 per cent of the total generation. The main source of hydroelectricity in the National Grid System is Baluchaung No. 2 (Lawpita) Power Station in Kayah State. For regions outside the National Grid System area, electricity is generated mostly by diesel and mini- hydroelectric power stations. Altogether 315 towns and 927 villages are electrified.

The favourable geographic and hydrological conditions in Myanmar, provide it with abundant potential of hydropower resources. The explored hydropower potential is approximately 24,737 MW of which only about one per cent has been harnessed so far.

Electricity is supplied to consumers with 3 phase 400v/single phase 230v, 50 Hz AC.

The prevailing tariff rates are as follows:

     Electricity Tariff Rates                        		 Kyat per KW
     General Purpose, Domestic Power and Small Power      2.50
     Industrial and Bulk                                  *.**
     Large Industrial                                     *.**

 

Land
Leasable Land

In the Union of Myanmar, according to the existing laws, land is solely owned by the State. Foreign economic enterprises and individuals may lease land for their business, subject to the Transfer of Immovable Property Registration Law, 1987, to lease of land to foreign economic enterprises and individuals.

There is a guideline with respect to lease of land for foreign investment. The rates varies depending of a type of land use and its location.

The land may be leased up to 30 years, and may be extended upon negotiation. The rates are subject to review after every 5 years from the date of the lease. For high-rise buildings, annual land lease rates shall be based on the floor area.

Right to cultivate/utilise cultivable, fallow and waste land for agricultural, livestock breeding, aquaculture and other affiliated economic enterprises can be applied as mentioned in Chapter 1.

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Prepared by THAN TUN WIN, Embassy of the Union of Myanmar , Brussels